Different components of a computer you should know

  • Have you ever wondered what goes inside a computer system when you perform an operation? 
  • How do components interact with each other? 
  • what all components are present in a computer system?

Well, if you work on a computer or are trying to make your career as a computer engineer, you must be able to answer these questions. A computer system is made up of two major components i.e., software and hardware.

The hardware of a computer system consists of all the physical components/peripherals that you use while operating a computer. This includes memory, monitor, mouse, CPU and registers in a computer.

Whereas, the software is responsible for helping you communicate with the system and carry out a specific task on it.

The list is quite extensive when it comes to computer components. Therefore, we have curated a list of computer components that everyone should be aware of.

List of Crucial Computer Components

Check out the list of some basic computer hardware components that everyone must be aware of. 

Central Processing Unit

The central processing unit is responsible for controlling all the processes and helps them build a communication system. All its intricacies make it one of the most crucial parts of the whole computer system. This part of the system consists of three major components including

  • Memory unit: This unit is responsible for storing the input entered by the user. After the information is saved in the memory, it is passed to other components. In the same way, when a process is complete and an output is generated, it will be saved in this unit and then the output will be provided to the user. 
  • Arithmetic and Logical Unit: As the name suggests, this unit of the central processing unit performs all the arithmetic and logical operations on the given input. This includes comparing data and performing addition, multiplication and subtraction along with other calculations. 
  • Control Unit: The control unit of the CPU is responsible for controlling all the functions of components of a computer system. This unit collects data provided by the user, passes the data to the processor and on completion, it provides the output to the user. 

Output Unit

Whenever a process is complete, an output is generated in the computer system. This output is provided to the user with the help of the output unit. The most common output device is a monitor whereas other important output devices include a webcam, printer, speakers and headphones. 

Input Unit

To give commands to the computer, input devices like a keyboard and mouse are used. After receiving inputs in the form of alphabets, images and numbers, the input is converted into machine language and is then processed by the computer. It then generates the output and the output is delivered to the user. 


A motherboard is the most crucial component of a computer system. The motherboard is simply a circuit board through which multiple components of a computer system are connected and communicate with each other. The whole circuit keeps the entire system together. 

Storage Unit

Multiple storage devices, memory slots, and registers in a computer together build the storage unit. Generally, to store all the data in the system, either a solid-state drive or a hard disk drive is used.

 On one hand, hard disk drives store data which can be read by mechanical arms only, but SSD works as a SIM card. Although there is no moving part available in the SSD they are much faster than the HDD. 

Random Access Memory

One of the most talked-about components of a computer is RAM. It is a volatile memory because the data in it gets deleted every time you start your computer again. This memory component generally stores data related to programs that you frequently use on your system because of which the program starts and closes faster than other programs.

Graphics Processing Unit

One of the vital components of a computer system is a GPU. This unit is simply a video card used to generate graphics with high resolutions as required in video games. This graphics card is a crucial component for people who perform jobs related to 3D modellers or work on software that require more than usual resources. The GPU generally communicates with the monitor directly.

Power Supply

It is one system that activates the whole system by providing electricity to it. Generally, the power cord will be available at the CPU back to make it easier for you to plug it into the socket. Other than this, if there is a variable power supply, you will have to use a UPS for a constant supply of electricity. 

Display Monitor

This is the screen where all the users can see all the operations being performed and different programs. The quality of the monitor is generally determined by the resolution and pixel density. For every computer user, a good monitor is one of the top priorities. 

System Software

Along with the hardware of a computer system, three types of system software are also crucial for the proper functioning of a computer. The crucial software includes

  • Operating system: It is an interface between the system and the user and allows the user to easily communicate with the system.
  • Language processor: This software is responsible for converting the instructions sent in user language into machine language to make it understand instructions in a better way.
  • Device drivers: These drivers are crucial for the functioning of devices like keyboards, mouse and printers.

Now that we are discussing crucial components of a computer system, one common process which you will hear about is framing in the data link layer. This process provides you with a way to send message bits to the receiver in a meaningful order.  


The computer system may seem like a simple system made by connecting components but there are multiple processes that go on in the backend to make it easier for a user to operate the system. 

Multiple drivers, components and registers in a computer are responsible for making communications and processes easier in a computer system. 

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