General Rules Related To MHRA Referencing In Footnotes and Bibliography

Developed by the Modern Humanities Association, MHRA referencing is one of the most popular citation formats followed by several UK Universities. The primary purpose of this format is to cite books and journals published by the Association. However, now it is used for a wide variety of sources in the department of arts and humanities. This referencing format uses footnotes that fully reference a citation. The best thing about this referencing is that your readers or professors needn’t have to consult the bibliography to get hold of a reference.

General Rules Related To MHRA Referencing

There are two types of citations included in MHRA referencing in Leeds- footnotes and bibliographies. Footnotes are written within texts followed by a number and is detailed at the bottom of the page. Bibliographies include all the citations that you have used throughout your assignment.

Rules to follow while writing the footnotes:

  • Use sequential superscript numbers within the text of your essay.
  • Reference in full when you are citing a source for the first time.
  • Include the author’s last name, volume number of the source and page number when you are using subsequent footnotes of the same source.
  • However, in case of no author, include a shortened version of the source with the details such as title, volume number and page numbers.
  • Include the author’s last name, title, volume number and page numbers if you have to use footnotes for multiple sources by the same author.


Stella Cottrell, The Study Skills Handbook (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).

You may need some time to get the hang of all these rules efficiently. Till then, you can use an MHRA referencing generator to get the citations done automatically.

How to format the bibliography?

  • Follow an alphabetical order.
  • Arrange by the last name of authors followed by alphabetical order of the title if there is more than one source to cite.
  • There’s no need to use a full stop at the end of each citation.
  • Invert the first listed source or author so that the surname appears first.


Cottrell, Stella, The Study Skills Handbook (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013)

There are several MHRA referencing websites out there that can help with the latest edition guidelines. You can even hire citation tutors to get familiar with the updated citation formats in MHRA with the help of relevant examples.

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