How Is Vitiligo Diagnosed?


The only symptom of vitiligo is the development of pale patchy regions of depigmented skin on the limbs. Some people may suffer itching prior to the appearance of a fresh patch. The patches are mild at first, but they frequently develop and change shape. Skin lesions are especially noticeable on the face, hands, and wrists. Skin pigmentation loss is most visible at bodily orifices such as the mouth, eyes, nose, genitalia, and umbilicus. Some lesions have more skin pigmentation around the borders. Contact for the best treatment for vitiligo in India if you need treatment for vitiligo in India.

Autoimmune Relationships

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, psoriasis, Addison’s disease, pernicious anemia, alopecia areata, systemic lupus erythematosus, and celiac illness are all related with vitiligo.

Caspase one and caspase seven, which activate the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1, are two of NALP1’s inflammatory products. Interleukin-1 and interleukin-18 are highly expressed in vitiligo patients. The amino acids leucine in the NALP1 protein was replaced by histidine in one of the mutations (Leu155 His). The original protein and sequence have been identified in humans, chimps, rhesus monkeys, and bush babies, and are well conserved throughout evolution. Individuals with vitiligo may also have Addison’s disease (an autoimmune degeneration of the adrenal glands).


UV image of a vitiligo-infected foot.

In the early stage of this condition, an ultraviolet light can be used to identify the disease and assess the efficiency of treatment. When exposed to certain germs, fungus, and changes in skin pigmentation, skin will change color (fluoresce) under a Wood’s light.

Classification Attempts to quantify vitiligo have been found to be fairly uneven. whereas recent consensus has agreed on a scheme of segmental and non-segmental vitiligo (NSV). The most prevalent kind of vitiligo is NSV.


The position of the patches of depigmentation in non-segmental vitiligo (NSV) is frequently symmetric. New patches form throughout time and might be generalized across broad areas of the body or restricted to a specific place. Vitiligo universalis refers to severe forms of vitiligo in which little pigmented skin remains. NSV can occur at any age (unlike segmental vitiligo, which is far more prevalent in teenage years).

Non-Segmental Vitiligo Is Classified As Follows:

  • The most prevalent pattern, with large and widely dispersed regions of depigmentation, is generalized vitiligo.
  • Depigmentation covers the majority of the body in universal vitiligo.
  • One or a few dispersed macules in one location, particularly prevalent in children.
  • Fingers and periorificial parts with acrofacial vitiligo
  • Mucosal vitiligo is characterized by depigmentation of just the mucous membranes.

The appearance, etiology, and prevalence of concomitant diseases with segmental vitiligo (SV) varies. It is not treated in the same way as NSV. It usually affects regions of skin connected with dorsal roots of the spinal cord and is unilateral. It has a significantly more stable/static history and appears to have a lower relationship with autoimmune disorders than widespread vitiligo. Although topical therapy and UV radiation have little impact on SV, surgical procedures such as cellular grafting can be helpful.

Diagnosis Differentiation

Chemical leukoderma is a comparable disorder caused by repeated chemical exposure. Vitiligo, on the other hand, is a risk factor. Inflammatory skin disorders, burns, intralesional steroid injections, and abrasions can all be triggers.

Other Illnesses That Have Comparable Symptoms Include:

  • Albinism
  • The halo nevus
  • Guttate hypomelanosis idiopathic (white sunspots)
  • Piebaldism
  • Pityriasis alba
  • Hypopigmentation after inflammation
  • Adrenal insufficiency, primary
  • Progressive macular hypomelanosis
  • Tinea versicolor
  • Leprosy



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