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A company needs to source a product from overse
a. It wants to overcome technical barrier to cross-border trade by using standards in the specification. Which of the following is most likely to be incorporated into that specification?

  • A. Company standards
  • B. Brands
  • C. National standards
  • D. International standards

Answer: D

Exporting enterprises must sometimes incur additional costs as they adapt their production to the changing legal requirements of the recipient country. Such requirements can thus create technical barriers to trade. Discrepancies between product rules adopted by different countries can involve numerous aspects: weight, size, packaging, ingredients, mandatory labeling, shelf-life conditions, testing and certification procedures etc.
One way to overcome these barriers is to adopt international standards. Overseas companies may be more familiar with international standards without looking at specific regulations of importing countries.
– What is a technical barrier to trade?
– CIPS study guide page 88-89
LO 2, AC 2.1


Under a framework agreement, which of the following are supplier selection mechanisms? Select TWO that apply:

  • A. Mini competition
  • B. Call off contract
  • C. Direct call-off
  • D. Contract for lease
  • E. Rescission of contract

Answer: A,C

A framework agreement is an agreement with one or more suppliers/providers which sets out terms and conditions under which individual contracts (call-offs) can be made throughout the term of the agreement.
A framework agreement itself is not a contract, but the call-offs made from it are.
Framework arrangements create a streamlined and flexible process for procuring goods, works or services Where a framework for the same goods, works or services is awarded to several suppliers, there are three possible options for awarding call-off contracts: direct award (or direct call-off), mini-competition or a combination of both.
Option 1 – Apply the terms of the framework agreement (direct award).
Where your requirements match the terms and/or specification of the framework agreement (in the event of any query, you should clarify the situation with the organisation that established the framework), a particular call-off should be awarded without re-opening competition. The call-off should be awarded to the provider who is identified as the most economically advantageous tender based on the award criteria used at the time that the framework was established (i.e. the supplier ranked no. 1). Randomly selecting a supplier off a framework is not permitted.
Option 2 – Hold a mini-competition between capable suppliers.
If your requirements do not match the terms and/or the specification of the framework, you should conduct a mini-competition exercise. Whilst it is not permitted to substantially change the basic terms or specification of the framework, in running a mini-competition it is possible to supplement or refine the basic terms of the framework prior to making a call-off. Examples of such terms are:
– The particular goods/services/works required;
– Particular delivery timescales;
– Particular invoicing arrangements and payment profiles;
– Associated services such as installation, maintenance and training;
– Quantity;
– Functional specification.
Under no circumstances should brand names or brand-specific descriptions of goods be used e.g. BIC Biro Pen, Hewlett-Packard Printer, Dell computer. Descriptions should give reference to the characteristics and outputs of the product or service. Where no other description is possible, any reference should be qualified by adding the words ‘or equivalent’.
When a mini-competition exercise is held, all suppliers appointed to the framework that are capable of meeting the requirement must be invited to submit a tender. (This might just relate to suppliers within a particular ‘lot’). You must not limit the mini-competition exercise to selected providers. A time limit for submitting the tender must be set and advised to competing suppliers. This time limit must be reasonable, taking account of the complexity of the requirement.
The call-off must be awarded on the basis of the framework award criteria and new criteria cannot be added, although, where permitted, the weightings may be varied to take account of a particular requirement. However, in adjusting the weightings, care must be taken to ensure that any such changes do not have an adverse effect on competition.
Option 3 – Combination of direct award and mini-competition
To use a combination approach, the procurement documents must state that this route may be used. The procurement documents will also specify which terms may be subject to the re-opening of competition.
– Guidance on the Use of Framework Agreements
– CIPS study guide page 60-62
LO 1, AC 1.3


When should liquidated damages clauses be written into a contract?

  • A. When the breaching party wants to exclude all its liabilities
  • B. When the innocent party wants to punish the breaching party.
  • C. When the court approves the damages amount before the contract is executed.
  • D. When the loss to the innocent party will be either too uncertain or too difficult to calculate.

Answer: D

Liquidated damages are presented in certain legal contracts as an estimate of otherwise intangible or hard-to-define losses to one of the parties. It is a provision that allows for the payment of a specified sum should one of the parties be in breach of contract.
Liquidated damages are meant as a fair representation of losses in situations where actual damages are difficult to ascertain. In general, liquidated damages are meant to be fair, rather than punitive.
Limitations of Liquidated Damages
It is possible that a liquidated damages clause might not be enforced by the courts. This can occur if the monetary amount of liquidated damages cited in the clause is extraordinarily disproportional to the scope of what was affected by the breached contract.
Such limitations prevent a plaintiff from attempting to claim an unsubstantiated exorbitant amount from a defendant. For instance, a plaintiff might not be able to claim liquidated damages that amount to multiples of its gross revenue if the breach only affected a specific portion of its operations. The concept of liquidated damages is framed around compensation related to some harm and injury to the party rather than a fine imposed on the defendant.
The courts typically require that the parties involved make the most reasonable assessment possible for the liquidated damages clause at the time the contract is signed. This can provide a sense of understanding and reassurance of what is at stake if that aspect of the contract is breached. A liquidated damages clause can also give the parties involved a basis to negotiate from for an out-of-court settlement.
– Liquidated Damages
– CIPS study guide page 158-159
LO 3, AC 3.2


Which of the following is an invitation to treat?

  • A. Invoice
  • B. Price list
  • C. Tender bid
  • D. Purchase order

Answer: B

An invitation to treat is an action inviting other parties to make an offer to form a contract. These actions may sometimes appear to be offers themselves, and the difference can sometimes be difficult to determine. The distinction is important because accepting an offer creates a binding contract while “accepting” an invitation to treat is actually making an offer.
One simple test to distinguish an offer and an invitation to treat is to ask what this statement will become when it is accepted. Now we apply this test to four options:
– Tender bid: Tender bid is submitted by a supplier to an invitation to tender from the buyer. It states the specific quantity, price and other elements. If buyer accepts the bid, there will be a contract between them. Therefore, a tender bid is an offer.
– Purchase order: Purchase order which is sent by a buyer will state the items, the quantity, the price and terms and conditions. If supplier accepts the purchase order, there will also be a contract between two parties. It is also an offer.
– Price list: Price list is prepared by a supplier. The price list often states the items and unit price. If a buyer accepts it, the contract has not yet been formed since the contract scope has not yet been decided. It is an invitation to treat.
– Invoice: Invoice is often sent after a contract is formed. It is in fact a request for payment, neither offer nor invitation to treat.
– CIPS study guide page 29-32
– What Is an Invitation to Treat?
LO 1, AC 1.1


Which of the following are reasons why a purchaser wants to embed a subcontracting clause into the main contract? Select TWO that apply:

  • A. To improve supply chain transparency
  • B. To reduce the main contract complexity
  • C. To induce the conflicts between the main contractor and subcontractors
  • D. To keep main contractor liable
  • E. To condemn whole liabilities to subcontractors

Answer: A,D

There are number of reasons why the purchaser will want to control the supplier’s subcontracting:
– Supply chain transparency: Normally the purchaser has invested a lot of effort into selecting the right contractor. However, the main contractor’s selection of subcontractor might not be in such careful manner, which may result in poor performance. Purchaser must know who subcontractors are. Controlling the subcontracting process can help the purchaser control the outcome.
– Contract terms: the purchaser’s requirements must be reflected in the subcontracts. The subcontracting clauses may require the main contractor to do this.
– Liability: the main contractor may subcontract the whole or a part of its liabilities. Subcontracting clause may bind the contractor to be liable with the work, it cannot just blame the subcontractor for any faults.
LO 3, AC 3.2



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