What are the 3 Main Steps of the IVF Technique?

Whenever there is an inconvenience or difficulty in conceiving a child, In-vitro Fertilization, one of the many fertilization techniques, is performed. It is a complicated process but it turns out to be one of the best treatments that produce promising results. Nowadays, couples who are having health issues or genetic conditions opt for this particular fertilization technique to increase their chances of pregnancy.

What is IVF?

IVF stands for In Vitro Fertilization. It is a technique or fertilization treatment that results in the embryo(s) by the act of fusion of egg and sperm outside a woman’s uterus. IVF is known to be one of the efficient methods of ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology). Depending on whether the steps can be fragmented into different parts, the procedure takes around 3-6 weeks.


Who is eligible for IVF?

Although IVF is generally performed for a woman who is past 40 years old, it can also be performed for a couple among whom one or both have any medical conditions.

However, if any of the partners is going through any of the following conditions, they are eligible for IVF Technique:

  • Genetic Conditions: Passing of health disorders genetically to the offspring
  • Blockage of the Fallopian Tube: As the fallopian tube is where the fusion of egg and sperm takes place, blockage in the same cannot result in conception.
  • Sperm Dysfunction: When the sperms aren’t getting enough nutrition, they may lose their mobility, become small in size, or have low sperm count may be the reason for misconception.
  • PCOS or PCOD: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome or Disease is one of the hormonal health disorders in females that brings changes in menstruation, ovum fertility, and many other medical conditions.
  • Cancer and Treatment: If a female has a benign tumour called fibroids in the uterus, then the treatment for cancer i.e., Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, etc may result in the failed implantation process.

What is the Procedure for IVF Technique?

The IVF Procedure step by step includes the following three phases:


  1. Ovarian Stimulation

As the ovaries are capable of producing one egg every month, Ovarian Stimulation is done to demand multiple eggs from the ovaries. This is carried out by hormonal treatment. The reason why multiple eggs are needed is that if one egg fails to fertilize, there are chances of the other eggs getting fused. Hormonal treatment includes injecting Follicle Stimulation Hormone and Luteinising Hormones for the ovaries to produce multiple eggs. Apart from these, different medications for egg maturation, preventing pre-mature egg release, and medications for implantation are prescribed.

  1. Sperm and Egg Retrieval:

Firstly, egg retrieval is done within 20 minutes of the procedure. Once there is an indication that the ovaries have released multiple ovaries, transvaginal ultrasound is performed. After sedating and giving pain medications to the female, to identify the follicles, an ultrasound probe is pierced. After this, within the ultrasound guide, a thin needle is inserted to retrieve the follicles. Once multiple eggs are retrieved, they are cultivated in a nutritive medium.

Just a few hours before the egg retrieval, a semen sample from the male has to be collected and given to the doctor for cultivation in a nutritional medium. Generally, the sample is collected through masturbation, but in cases of any medical condition, a needle is inserted directly into the testicles, and semen is retrieved. This surgical method is called Testicular Aspiration.

  1. Fertilization and Embryo Transfer:

Apart from the Conventional fusion where they fuse the eggs and sperm and incubate them overnight, ICSI is also performed. ICSI is the Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection, in which a prime sperm is injected directly into the mature egg. Talking about Embryo Transfer, it can either be done by the Genetic mother or the Surrogate mother. Generally, the procedure is done 3-5 days after egg retrieval and is usually painless. In this procedure, after giving a mild sedative, the doctor inserts a catheter which is a long, thin tube into the uterus passing through the cervix. A syringe is filled with the embryo(s) and is inserted inside the uterus to release them.


These are the three main steps of the IVF technique, which is highly prevalent these days. Anyone in need, not able to conceive naturally for some reason can always get benefitted from this excellent technique.

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