What Causes Infertility in Men and Women

What is infertility?

Infertility is generally understood to be the inability to conceive over one year (or more) of unprotected intercourse. Some healthcare professionals assess and address women aged 35 or older after six months of unprotected intercourse because it is known that women’s fertility declines gradually with age. The causes of infertility can come from both men and women.

Not being able to get pregnant is the main sign of infertility. There might not be any other evident signs. Women who are infertile can experience irregular or nonexistent menstrual cycles. Men who are infertile occasionally show symptoms of hormone imbalances, such as abnormalities in hair development or sex patterns.

What causes infertility in women?

Each stage of the human reproductive cycle must go according to plan for pregnancy to occur. The majority of instances of infertility are caused by sporadic or nonexistent ovulation. Ovulation difficulties can result from issues with the ovary, the pituitary gland, or the brain, which regulates reproductive hormones.

Few things that disrupt human reproductive hormones are listed below.

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Ovulation is impacted by the hormonal imbalance brought on by PCOS. PCOS is linked to insulin resistance, obesity, unusual body or facial hair development, and acne. It is the most frequent reason for infertility in women.
  • Hypothalamic dysfunction: The pituitary gland produces two hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which work together to stimulate ovulation each month. A very low or incredibly low body weight, a recent significant weight growth or loss, or excessive emotional or physical stress can all interfere with the release of such hormones and impair ovulation. The most typical symptoms are irregular or missing menstruation.
  • Primary ovarian insufficiency: This condition, also known as premature ovarian failure, is typically brought on by an immunological reaction or the early loss of eggs from your ovaries, which may be brought on by genes or chemotherapy. In younger women, the ovary reduces estrogen production since it no longer produces eggs.
  • Too much prolactin: Prolactin can be produced in excess by the pituitary gland (hyperprolactinemia), which inhibits the production of estrogens and may result in infertility. The medicines you’re using for a different condition may possibly be the cause of this.

What causes infertility in men?

  1. Abnormal sperm count: abnormal sperm function or production brought on by abnormally small testicles, genetic flaws, medical conditions like diabetes, or infectious diseases like chlamydia, gonorrhea, measles, or HIV. Varicocele, or swollen veins in the testes, can also lower sperm quality.
  2. Sexual problems: sexual issues, such as early ejaculation, certain hereditary illnesses, such cystic fibrosis, structural issues, including a block in the testicles, harm or damage to the reproductive organs, or issues with sperm distribution.
  3. Bad habits: overexposure to radiation and other environmental toxins, such as insecticides and other poisons. Fertility can also be impacted by cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, anabolic steroids, and prescription drugs for depression, high blood sugar, and bacterial infections. Regular heat exposure, like that found in saunas or bathtubs, can increase body temperature and have an impact on sperm production.
  4. Medication or therapy: damage brought on by cancer and the therapies used to treat it, such as chemotherapy or radiation. Sperm production can be negatively impacted by cancer treatment, sometimes significantly.

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